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Chocolate in China 浅析中国巧克力市场

2016-01-14 14:55:00来源:20区编辑:转角遇见你

Chocolate in China                            浅析中国巧克力市场


Starbucks’ success in China is testament to the fact that Chinese tastes are changing, with a nation of tea drinkers now enjoying flavored lattes and mochaccinos. Another unconventional food product making headway in the Chinese market is chocolate. China is now the eighth-most valuable chocolate market in the world, worth more than USD 2.9 billion per year. Although the average Chinese consumer still only spends $2.20 per year on chocolate in China—far below the world average of $13.90 per person per year—the growth opportunities are huge. Experts estimate the Chinese chocolate market will experience an annual growth rate of 8% over the next five years.


星巴克在中国大获成功,这也表明中国人的味蕾正在悄然改变,这个传统的饮茶大国如今也热衷起了拿铁和摩卡。而另一种在中国大受欢迎的舶来食物,则是巧克力。中国是当前世界第八大巧克力市场,市场规模每年达到29亿美元(约190亿人民币)。尽管中国消费者每年人均花费2.2美元(约人民币15元)用于购买巧克力,远低于世界年人均消费13.90美元(约人民币91元),但市场潜力巨大。专家预测,在未来的五年中,中国巧克力市场将年均增长8%。


  • Chocolate in modern Chinese culture

  • 巧克力与当代中国文化


Many Chinese consumers prefer bitter-tasting Western foods and beverages, as the popularity of coffee demonstrates. This might also explain the popularity of dark chocolate in China, which accounts for 30% of total chocolate sales in the country, just behind milk chocolate. The Chinese consumer has also shown a willingness to try new chocolate flavors, with concoctions such as salty- and nut filled-chocolate increasingly popular.


正如咖啡在中国的火爆所揭示的那样,许多中国消费者都倾向于略带苦味的西方食物和饮品,这或许能解释为何黑巧克力在中国受到如此欢迎,在国内巧克力总销量中占30%,仅居牛奶巧克力之后。同时,中国消费者也非常愿意尝试最新口味的巧克力,越来越多的消费者开始青睐坚果巧克力,或是一些微咸的巧克力。


Chocolate also fits nicely with China’s traditional gift-giving culture. Whether the chocolate is actually consumed or not doesn’t matter—it’s the gesture that’s revered in China. Western holidays, such as Valentine’s Day and Christmas, are also increasingly gaining momentum in China, providing a huge opportunity for international chocolate companies. Some are even gaining traction on Chinese holidays. Belgium’s Godiva chocolate company, for example, released a very successful chocolate version of a Chinese moon cake for the Chinese Mid-Autumn Festival.


中国人讲究礼尚往来,因而巧克力也成了人们相互馈赠的常见礼物。至于这盒巧克力最后吃没吃并不重要,礼到情意便已到。如今国内庆祝圣诞、情人节等洋节日的人越来越多,这也为国外巧克力厂商提供了契机,其中一些甚至在中国传统节日也依然受到热捧,例如来自比利时的歌帝梵,就推出了针对中秋节的特别系列,产品大获成功。


  • The big players

  • 巧克力厂商的逐鹿中原


Just like in the coffee industry, all the big chocolate players in China are foreign multinationals: Mars Foods is the leader with 38.8% of the market in 2015, followed by Ferrero China, Shanghai Hershey, and Nestlé with a respective market share of 13.2%, 12.9%, and 9.3%. Nestlé is the most established of the brands, with more than 35 years in market. The other players have all been here for 20 years or longer.


与咖啡一样,所有在中国市场表现抢眼的巧克力厂商都为来自西方的跨国企业:玛氏食品稳居第一,在2015年占据了38.8%的市场份额,紧随其后的是费列罗、好时和雀巢,分别占13.2%、12.9%和9.3%。雀巢是这些品牌中在中国发展最完善的,进入国内市场已经35年,而其他大品牌也都已来到中国20年有余。


Mars has maintained its position as market leader by targeting different consumer groups with its three main brands: Dove, M&M’s, and Snickers. Dove’s feminine advertising campaigns are targeted to younger women, for instance, while M&M’s ads are aimed at Chinese teenagers. Snickers, meanwhile, is positioned as the brand for people that are in need of an energy boost. This effective marketing strategy has given the company a constant market share of around 39% over the last five years.


玛氏稳居第一的秘诀在于,它运用旗下的三个主要品牌德芙、M&M’s和士力架,吸引不用的消费者群体。德芙采用女性化的广告策略,针对年轻女性,M&M’s针对青少年,而士力架则将目光聚焦在那些需要补充能量的人身上。这一系列有效的营销手段使得玛氏在过去5年间,迅速占据了39%的市场份额。


Ferrero Rocher specializes on the gift-giving segment of the market, right down to its golden bon-bon packaging, which dovetails nicely with the Chinese traditional belief that the color gold indicates wealth and good fortune. Ferrero Rocher has been so successful with its gold packaging, in fact, it has spawned a Chinese copycat—the brand Montresor. After a protracted intellectual property court battle, Ferrero was awarded an important judgement against Montresor in 2008, giving it the exclusive copyright for the Ferrero bonbon in China.


费列罗则专注于礼品方向,以其金色的包装而闻名,契合传统文化中的“金玉满堂”。与此同时,费列罗著名的金色包装也催生了国内的仿制着,蒙特莎。2008年,历经旷日持久的知识产权诉讼,费列罗战胜蒙特莎,获得了其在中国的独家版权。


Hershey has taken a more aggressive approach to the Chinese market by acquiring the Chinese candy maker Golden Monkey in 2014, giving it a secure distribution channel to Chinese second- and third-tier cities. Still, Hershey underperformed this year with a lower-than-expected growth rate in China. According to the company, the Chinese appetite for chocolate in China seems to rise and fall in line with the Chinese economy. Nestlé also blamed its disappointing 2015 results on the slowing economy.


好时的市场策略相当大胆,于2014年收购了国内厂商金丝猴,获得了在二三线城市的稳固销售渠道,但其2015年的销售业绩却不如预期。好时认为巧克力在中国市场的销量与中国经济的起伏同步,雀巢也将它2015年的不尽如人意归于经济的低迷。


  • Future of chocolate in China: challenges and opportunity

  • 中国巧克力市场前景:挑战与机遇


The biggest opportunity for growth in the Chinese chocolate market is in the second- and third-tier cities, which, as always, present distribution challenges. Companies like Hershey have overcome this challenge by acquiring local players, while others, like Cadbury’s have taken a more innovative approach, developing a chocolate bar that can withstand temperatures of up to 40 degrees Celsius for up to three hours.


中国巧克力市场最大的发展空间,在于二三线城市,而与以往一样,这也意味对零售的挑战。针对这一问题,好时等公司通过收购本地公司进行解决,而其他公司,如吉百利,则采取了更具创新的手段,吉百利研发出一种新的巧克力配方,能够在高达40摄氏度高温的环境下,3小时不融化。


First-tier cities like Shanghai and Beijing, on the other hand, appear to have reached a saturation point for the big chocolate players. The biggest opportunities are now in the premium chocolate sphere, where companies like Godiva and Lindt are excelling.


另一方面,在诸如北京、上海的一线城市,巧克力市场近趋饱和,但在高端巧克力方面,仍有较大的发展空间,歌帝梵和瑞士莲就属于其中的佼佼者。





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